Google Sniper 3.0 : A Review

After the huge success of Google Sniper and Google Sniper 2.0, George Brown launched the Google Sniper 3.0 on 8 December 2014.Google Sniper 3.0 is quite simply, your gateway to limitless commissions within the sphere of affiliate marketing and beyond. Whether you are a newbie marketer, or seasoned affiliate, Google Sniper 3.0 will teach you something new.

Google Sniper 3.0Basically, it will walk you the entire process of affiliate marketing with it’s 106-page ebook, and several walk-through videos that show you how to do everything in person. You will learn everything, from how to setup WordPress on your blog, keyword research, how to select dynamo affiliate products that sell, and how to rank your blogs. Google Sniper 3.0 will also reveal how you can outsource most of your business so you can scale it all for big commissions with little to no additional work on your part!

The New Google Sniper 3.0 internet marketing course has been completely updated and revised for 2015. When courses age they can become outdated, however George Brown has revised almost all of the original guides for the New Google Sniper 3.0! This includes a brand new member’s area together with new videos produced by George himself.

This new course has been revised to ensure that less time is taken to do the research enabling a budding internet marketer to create a Google Sniper website quickly and successfully. This becomes more apparent when carrying out keyword research. It is also noted that the new revised guides have now included information which relates and complies with FTC regulations.

It includes coaching calls, over the shoulder videos and real case studies to ensure you are successful right from the start. Also included is a new section called the “Empire Module”. This teaches you how to transform a single page sniper website into an entire network of money generating websites that includes methods and advice on how to outsource this ENTIRE method with ease.

This particular section includes business development tips and introduces ideas for product creation that will increase your sniper site revenue! The modern Internet Marketer spends a great deal of hours designing and creating websites and then split tests and optimizes them. Google Sniper 3.0 makes it even easier and reduces the workload by automation. The creation of The Google Sniper by George Brown does everything the original did but now does it better, much better. Personal success stories are featured and significant changes have been made within the core of this new internet marketing course. The new members section has been reworked and include new videos that have been updated and revised to include the latest marketing techniques obviously due to Google’s algorithm changes.

Google Sniper 3.0 can create single page money sites that rank very well within the SERPS (search engine result pages).  The generation of traffic to the sniper sites via Google search results ensures that internet marketers do not have to dedicate long periods of time driving traffic to their money site. The new course shows how to find keywords within niches that sell. The Sniper sites are created by using Word Press that will easily reduce the work time considerably. Websites that have been created using Word Press are known to rank high in Google for keyword phrases within the SERPS. The course also creates custom squeeze pages with a conversion rate as high as 22%. That is equivalent to 1 in 5 visitors buying your offer.

The new guides including the “Empire” module teaches users how they can create a full size Empire network from small Sniper sites, together ways to create your own products with comprehensive in-depth discussions on developing your business, with special attention on outsourcing the entire Google Sniper process that will increase your profits with little or no work. Easy to understand instructions within the course focuses on this system that covers everything that’s needed to achieve results. The large amount of material and print outs are easy to implement so you can begin and start the strategies almost immediately.

Those of you who are searching to make money from home on the internet continuously even whilst asleep must try the New Google Sniper. George Montague Brown who created Google Sniper 3.0 has definitely discovered the secret formula that will ensure high rankings of single page sniper sites on the front page of Google for a specific keyword. And it goes without saying that the more sites you create using Google Sniper the more money you will make.

Google Sniper 3.0 has been designed so that the end user does not need any experience or understanding of how to make money online. This course provides many instructional step by step videos and just watching them will ensure that at least half the work is done for you. George Brown has ensured that the only thing the user needs to know is how to use the internet and everything else will fall nicely into place.

For more information please Click Here!

The Most Proven System For Making A Full Time Income Online

Sniper 3.0 468X60-2

Lets face it… working from home is something we’d all like to do.
From being able to work when you want, from wherever you want, the percentage of people who are striving to work from home is continually increasing.
Perhaps another reason for the demand is due to the fact it’s now becoming a lot more attainable, with more and more people working from home and most importantly… more and more people making money online.
But where do you start?
You’ve probably heard of various ways to ‘make money online’ before, with the likes of Facebook, eBay, Twitter, Surveys and Forex appearing in most recommendations. But the issue with most of these methods is they only really work for the more advanced customer.
Today we wanted to shine the light on a method with proven success stories, and most importantly a system that can be used by anyone.
Want to work from home and make money online? Then listen up.
Over the past few years, Google Sniper has helped ‘regular’ people work from home and make money online. With over 100,000 past customers, and the most success stories you’ll ever find online, we tested out the system to see what the fuss was about.
With easy to follow training manuals, videos, monthly webinars and 1 on 1 support, the system has been set up for success.
The method? Spending a few hours a day building small ‘Sniper’ sites and following a secret formula that easily ranks them in Google. As people search and find your sites through Google, you make money through recommending related products and making a commission (money) from each sale.
I’m just scratching the surface here though, but I wanted to give you an insight into how it works.
Want to work from home? Then making money online is the obvious option. Want to know how? Google Sniper 3.0 is the most proven system for making a full time income online. For more details  click here.

How to Do Last Minute Christmas Shopping

It’s Christmas Eve and you’ve left the Christmas shopping till now. Whatever the reason for your lack of planning, it’s still possible to come up with last minute gift ideas that match your budget and the tiny amount of time left to shop. Here are some tips of “how to do last minute christmas shopping”.Take note of the following suggestions, pack your list and get going!  You will find plenty of gift ideas for your friends and family here in this website:


  • Think simple. By this stage, elaborate gifts are beyond your capability, and keeping it simple is the name of the game. Perhaps this is why you left things till the last minute anyway, but there’s no need to feel guilty––simple gifts in our recession-prone, environmentally responsible and conscious consumption era make sound sense anyway. If your own ideas aren’t sparking, here are just a few ideas to get you started:
  • For coffee lovers: Buy a package of really good quality Fair Trade coffee, add a package of organic cinnamon sticks and wrap it all together with a beautiful scarf or napkin and a big bow.
  • For tea lovers: Buy a teacup and saucer from a vintage or secondhand store, stick a package of French (or other quality) tea inside it and add a tea strainer to the side. Wrap all in cellophane with a gorgeous bow to finish.
  • For music lovers: You could buy a CD of their favorite music or you could make one from your own music. Make a playlist and burn it to a CD, carefully write out the titles and artists and wrap beautifully. Making your own selection can carry great meaning when the songs are ones that reflect shared experiences. Other ideas include purchasing a ticket to a concert they’d love to go to (buy online and prettify the ticket packaging), an iTunes voucher or a book on the history of some aspect of music.
  • For book lovers: If you’re running out of time, a book voucher purchased in-store or online will suffice but how much nicer to choose at least one book that you think will resonate with the person and slip the voucher inside it. Or, how about going to the secondhand bookstore and choosing a much loved classic with beautiful binding, writing a note that describes how this book made you feel when you first read it, then wrapping it in lovely paper.
  • For garden lovers: Buy a kitchen herb garden or some fancy containers for indoor plants. A small set of good quality gardening gloves, garden snips and seeds can be easily put together in a little basket, tied together in cellophane. A potted plant always makes a nice gift for someone who enjoys caring for plants.
  • For gourmet food lovers: Grab the best bottle of olive/walnut/sesame oil you can find on the supermarket shelf, some grissini (Italian bread sticks), a box of decent if not downright luxurious chocolates, a bottle of wine and some fresh packages of spices. Place in a gift box or basket, wrap with cellophane and add a bow.
  • For video game fans: Grabbing a video game at the last minute is risky unless you’re certain the recipient lacks that title. Instead, purchase a voucher from their favorite game store, and perhaps an accessory such as an extra game controller, a case for storing the games or similar items to round out the gift. If you do buy a game, ask if it can be exchanged; do not buy if it can’t be.
  • For the jewelery lover: While bling is a bit ostentatious in current times, if you can afford a decent piece of jewelery for someone special, keep it simple. You can rarely go wrong with well crafted gold or silver pieces but if time is of the essence, be careful about making snap choices. An alternative is a voucher to a really quaint boutique jewelery store rather than the franchise, run-of-the-mill ones. And for those unable to afford the real stuff, indulge in gorgeous handcrafted hair accessories, costume jewelery and pretty vintage brooches. A voucher for Etsy never goes astray either.
  • For the bath/spa lover: Find some fine French soap, a gorgeous bubble bath, a divine scrubbing mitt and some bath salts. Package together inside a pretty container and, if you have the time, throw together a little book of bath recipes on your computer and add the printed version to the package.
  • For the baking fan: New baking tools will always be appreciated. Look for interesting silicon baking pan shapes, vintage-looking, sturdy mixing bowls, wooden spoons of substance (you can never have too many), pastry brushes, cookie cutters, etc. If you have time, make a collection of your own favorite recipes in eBook or printed form and pass them on.
  • For the candy lover: This isn’t hard, really! Find candies, chocolates and anything else sweet. There are chocolate Santas, reindeer drops, all the usual candies, etc. to choose from. Or splash out and get a box of hand-selected Belgian or handcrafted chocolates. Wrap exquisitely.

Do your best to avoid the crowds. In the press of people, blaring music and seemingly emptying shelves of “what’s hot” this Christmas, there can be a temptation to give in to overspending on stuff that may not be what you wanted to give. The brain tends to give in to the pressure of noise and flash displays when in a rush, all in the hope of getting out faster! Seek out quieter locales, such as your local boutique stores or a deserted city center.

  • Failing this, have a very good plan of attack––know which stores you will go to (and no others), head straight for the right purchase points and do not deviate!
  • If a store sells nothing but Christmas items, keep out of it. If you haven’t bought Christmas themed items by now, it’s too late anyway and they don’t make good gifts!
  • Avoid places throwing last-minute sales. It’ll be bedlam.

Consolidate your shopping. This means heading to places such as department stores, garden centers with gift shops, drugstores with great ranges of goodies, warehouses, even the supermarket, etc. If you can get as many gifts in the one place as possible, you maximize the efficiency of your shopping expedition. If you’re really lucky, it’ll be a one-stop shop.

Write a list. Before you leave the office, home or wherever you may be, put at least a half hour’s thought into the Christmas gift list. This will keep you focused, calm and it will ensure that you don’t accidentally miss someone’s gift.

  • This is a great chance to come up with possible gift ideas, or at least “genres” of gifts that will help you to narrow down where you need to go.
  • The list will also help you to identify whether it’s possible to head to just one or two stores or whether you need to deftly weave your way between numerous stores all before closing time.

Create a special Christmas card or video. If you have any friends that you live far away, then consider creating a card or video wishing them a Merry Christmas. This can be done very quickly the day before Christmas, sent overnight and be waiting for them when they wake up next morning. (Or, you can blame time zones for any late arrival!).

Donate your time. People can always do with help of one sort of another but many people feel embarrassed or awkward about asking. Think about the sorts of things that your recipient could use help with that you’re able to do, such as a house clean, a garden tidy up, walking their pet for a while, house-sitting while they go away, baking a cake every weekend for a month, etc. Your offer can be made by way of a quickly produced booklet of vouchers (use your computer, print them off and staple together) or simply write your one-off offer into the Christmas card and place the card under the tree as the gift.

Make an offer to attend the post-Christmas sales with your gift recipient and offer to buy them something then. This may seem a little bizarre at first but if both of you like a bargain, enjoy shopping and see the sense in conscious consuming, you can set aside the gift giving for later, enjoy Christmas for its real meaning and look forward to spending time together again during the sales. This is a great gift idea for someone you really enjoy hunting down bargains with!

Write a poem or a short story. If you enjoy writing and the recipient is someone who is special to you, consider this highly personalized gift. Think about all the things that matter about this person, or an event where the two of you learned or shared something together that carries great meaning. Write your impressions and feelings in a poem or short story form as an ode to the recipient and what he or she means in your life. You can wrap it up like a scroll and add a seal, or you can frame it in a frame quickly purchased from the late night drugstore, or you can simply add beautiful fonts and borders before printing and wrap as is.

Hope this will give you some ideas about “how to do last minute christmas shopping”.

Source: Wiki How

Gold in Eucalyptus Tree Leaves – A New Exploration Tool ?

This is a continuation of my earlier blog on phytomining. As mentioned in my earlier discussion, biogeochemical survey is nothing new to the mineral explorationist. The technique has been used for sometime now. Colin Dunn has published an excellent book (Biogeochemistry in Mineral Exploration).

Recently, the CSIRO researchers have discovered gold particles in eucalyptus tree leaves using the synchrotron at Monash University in Clayton, Victoria, Australia. The findings differ from earlier techniques in that, gold particles were actually discovered in the leaves. In addition, gold was also found in shrubs growing beneath the trees, as well as, other tree , such as, Acacia mulga. According to Dr Lintern of CSIRO, the portions of gold are about one-fifth the diameter of a human hair.

The discovery was possible due to this exciting new tool – synchrotron light. Synchrotron light is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when electrons, moving at velocities close to the speed of light, are forced to change direction under the action of a magnetic field. The electromagnetic radiation is emitted in a narrow cone in the forward direction, at a tangent to the electron’s orbit. It is unique in its intensity and brilliance and it can be generated across the range of the electromagnetic spectrum: from infrared to x-rays. The properties of X-radiation from synchrotron sources that distinguish it from more conventional sources are intensity, collimation, and tunability.

The technique has a very bright future in the mineral exploration industry. No doubt, with further investigations, it has the potential to be an invaluable tool for the Australian mineral industry. This new tool will not only greatly reduce the cost of exploration, but also save significant time compared to present techniques which involve deep drilling.

Phytomining – is it going to replace traditional mining?

(Source : New technique to yield gold from crop plants
PTI | Apr 14, 2013)

Prospectors and geoscientists have over hundred years used traditional techniques to discover gold. Scientist have now developed a new technique called phytomining, by which gold can be extracted from soil by using crop plants.

Some plants have the natural ability to take up through their roots and concentrate metals such as nickel, cadmium and zinc in their leaves and shoots.

For years, scientists have explored the use of such plants, dubbed hyperaccumulators, for pollution removal.

However, there are no known gold hyperaccumulators, because gold doesn’t easily dissolve in water so plants have no natural way of taking the particles in through their roots, LiveScience reported.

“Under certain chemical conditions, gold solubility can be forced,” said Chris Anderson, an environmental geochemist and gold phytomining expert at Massey University in New Zealand.

Fifteen years ago, Anderson first showed it was possible to get mustard plants to suck up gold from chemically treated soil containing gold particles.

The technique includes finding a fast-growing plant with a lot of aboveground leafy mass, such as mustard, sunflowers or tobacco. The next step is to plant the crop on soil that contains gold.

Once the crops reach their full height, treat the soil with a chemical that makes gold soluble. When the plant transpires, water is pulled up and out through tiny pores on its leaves, it will take up the gold water from the soil and accumulate it in its biomass. It can then be harvested.

Getting the gold into plants is the easy part. Getting the gold out has proved more difficult, Anderson explained.

“Gold behaves differently in plant material,” Anderson told the website.

If the plants are burned, some of the gold will stay attached to the ash, but some will disappear. Processing the ash poses difficulties, too, and requires the use of huge amounts of strong acids, which can be dangerous to transport.

The gold found in plants are nanoparticles, so there may be great potential for the chemical industry, which uses gold nanoparticles as catalysts for chemical reactions, Anderson said.

Gold phytomining won’t ever take the place of traditional gold mining, Anderson said.

He is currently working with researchers in Indonesia to develop a sustainable system for small-scale artisanal gold miners to use the technique to reduce the mercury pollution from their operations.

However, some scientists warn the environmental risks associated with growing gold itself may be too high. Cyanide and thiocyanate, the same hazardous chemicals used by mining companies to get gold to leach out of rock, must be used to dissolve gold particles in soil water.

It is highly unlikely that phytomining can be used on a larger scale. It can be best used as a secondary mining technique in already mined area to remove gold or other by metals from tailings. The technique has more applications in soil remediation, but can be used as an additional exploration tool.

For those who are interested in this technique should read Plants that Hyperaccumulate Heavy Metals


This book brings together for the first time in one volume all the relevant ecological information on hyperaccumulators and describes the new disciplines, methods and uses for them which continue to be explored. These include the removal of heavy metal pollutants from soils and waters (phytoremediation), the identification of ancient human settlements (phytoarchaeology), mineral exploration, the revegetation of degraded land and the exciting possibility of the commercial extraction of heavy metals from crop plants (phytomining). This book is essential reading for plant ecologists and physiologists who have an interest in hyperaccumulators, environmental consultants specialising in land restoration, and exploration geochemists. It will also be of great interest to professionals, lecturers and advanced students in environmental

The English Girl: A Novel (Gabriel Allon)

Daniel Silva delivers another spectacular thriller starring The English Girl: A Novel (Gabriel Allon)

When a beautiful young British woman vanishes on the island of Corsica, a prime minister’s career is threatened with destruction. Allon, the wayward son of Israeli intelligence, is thrust into a game of shadows where nothing is what it seems…and where the only thing more dangerous than his enemies might be the truth.

Silva’s work has captured the imagination of millions worldwide. His #1 New York Times bestselling series, which chronicles the adventures of art-restorer and master spy Gabriel Allon, has earned the praise of readers and reviewers everywhere. This captivating new page-turner from the undisputed master of spy fiction is sure to thrill new and old fans alike.

A proven strategy that WORKS…

We all know that there are various “make money loopholes” or “push button software’s” available to buy that have the ability to generate you money online, but there’s nothing better than a proven strategy that works. A detailed step by step guide which takes you from struggling to make a cent, to earning commission on autopilot for months on end.

Google Sniper by George Brown is exactly that, and it’s a system that will take you through finding a niche, discovering high volume targeted keywords, picking a product to promote to setting up your wordpress site and getting in indexed by Google. It really is the most foolproof system available.

Not only is it a well taught course anyone can learn, the strategy actually kicks ass! It takes you on average about 2-4 hours to create a Sniper site, and this includes everything from researching a niche to finding a product to promote (if you follow the steps correctly). After this, it really is all systems go…

As people we all value time over money right? Well a strategy that generates you a good deal of money but takes you 16 hours a day to operate isn’t a good one. Yes you’ll make money, but you won’t have any time to enjoy that money. But Google Sniper really makes you commission on autopilot. It takes on average 2-4 hours to set up, and then you simply can just relax. Why?

There’s no traffic generation involved!

● No PPC
● No Link Building
● No Social Media – No Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr or anything or that sort
● No CPA
● No More Spending Time On Months Of Content Either…

It’s an awesome strategy, and it’s easy to learn.

Google Sniper 2.0 really is a must for anyone looking to make money online. The 104-page eBook guides you through the process, and is reinforced by the step-by-step walkthrough videos. The monthly option of Sniper X also keeps everything up to date, and gives you even more strategies and tactics to make more money from your sniper sites. But that choice is optional…

So with more success stories generated than any other make money online strategy? It’s a no brainer; check it out here –


Amazing New Online Money Making System Generates $1,547 A Day..

Google Sniper 2.0 is an amazing new system that anyone can make money from. It’s simple, it doesn’t involve a heavy investment and proof shows it works! That’s a type of strategy we all want right?

I’ve always been left disappointed with various “make money online” schemes, after I’ve invested so much time, hard earned money and effort into them. You’ve probably been in a similar situation, and may even still be struggling to make a cent online, but we’ve all been there.

So what’s different about Google Sniper? Well…

● This system is EASY to implement.
● There’s NO traffic generation required.
● There’s no need to dedicate hundreds of hours each month.
● And it’s generated more online success stories than any other course…

Do a simple search for “make money online” and you’ll discover that there’s a lot of “push button software’s” that promise to generate you an income online, and there’s a lot of strategies that simply don’t work. Google Sniper 2.0 has taken the online community by storm and is quickly generating a huge amount of online success stories, and allowing a great number of people to quit full time employment…

Re-read them bullet points again, because this new, unique strategy allows you to make money online easily. It involves no traffic generation, is simple to learn and most importantly… you don’t need to commit a lot of time to it.

Now not only is this unique strategy a proven success, but the training guide is second to none also. It’s hands down the best training guide I’ve come across to start making money online in the quickest time possible, with a simple approach. Yes, the training is extensive, but it’s a step-by-step process that includes videos that walk you through the whole strategy also. There’s nothing better than a proven strategy that works, is taught well and can be picked up by anyone.

See what the hype is about by checking out Google Sniper here:


Google Sniper 2.0 by George Brown

It’s always refreshing to see new strategies to make money online. However, the majority of the time I’m pretty disappointed with the results.

When I was recommended to buy Google Sniper 2.0, I thought it would be another system that just left me disappointed, but the proof and success stories tipped me to buy it. A quick Google search for testimonials and by watching the sales video it was clear that this system has worked wonders for other people, and it’s actually generated the most online success stories than any other system/course to date. It was a no brainer to give it a shot personally.

At the time in my Internet marketing journey, I was pretty lost as to what road to head down. Google Sniper 2.0 really outlays the basics, from picking a niche, choosing keywords, buying a domain to setting up a wordpress website which will generate passive income online. It’s an extensive guide, but it’s easy to pick up (the walkthrough videos by George help also).

I studied the strategy pretty extensively to start with, and created my first “Sniper” site the next day. I was pretty excited due to the success stories, but still had that common doubt that it would be another blowout. I made my first bit of commission two weeks later after setting up the site completely. It wasn’t a huge amount but it was something, and that was the trigger to skim through the course once more to see if I could improve my site in anyway. The site in question started to generate me a tidy amount of commission, and still generates on average $375 a month (on autopilot).

As I’ve been recommended many times before, “if something works duplicate it…” And that’s what I did. I now have about 10 sniper sites, all generating commission each month. Each site differs in the amount of money I’m making, but I can’t squabble as I’m on the hunt for more…

The best thing about this course is alongside earning a nice income each month from this system on autopilot with no traffic generation, it’s also an extensive guide into niche research, finding products to promote and how to set up your own website. Yes, it may need to be read through a few times, but believe me… It’s worth it.

Check out Google Sniper 2.0 here –


Infinite Books

Welcome to Infinite Books, your gateway to millions of books from around the world. The objective of Infinite Books is to make online shoppers of books have easy access to the world’s leading book sellers and publisher without having to keep moving from one website to another in search of your favourite book. Here you will be able to access all kinds of books under the sun, from children’s books to academic books to rare and weird books.

Geothermal Energy in India

The global energy crisis along with climate change, have prompted governments world-wide to seek cleaner renewable energy sources. Solar and wind energy are gaining momentum as additional energy sources. Geothermal energy, on the other hand, has been tapped in very few countries. The main reasons until now could be due to lack of knowledge on the deep subsurface structure and deep drilling technology under high temperature and pressure conditions.

India too have joined the race to explore non-polluting renewable energy sources to replace conventional sources, namely from coal and petroleum products, and to cut carbon emissions. Solar, wind and geothermal energy fall in this category. Unlike in the sectors of wind and solar energy, no benefits or incentives have been formulated or announced to attract investment in geothermal energy and to induce private parties to explore and exploit this sector.

This could change in the near future, with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy in consultation with state officials are planning a national geothermal policy that will include how development blocks may be awarded to private companies.

The Government of India is in the process of formulation of a new geothermal energy policy. However, there are few companies who have been looking in this sector. One such company is Avin Energy Systems Ltd of Gujarat. The company has investigated potential areas for utilising geothermal energy in the state of Gujarat in western India (Figs. 1 and 2).

Tata Power, India’s largest investor-owned power producer, is another company with interest in the geothermal sector. Tata Power holds an 11.4 percent stake in Geodynamics Ltd. of Australia. Mumbai-based Tata Power may bring that technology to India after the government issues its geothermal policy.

Another company with the interest in the geothermal sector is Geosyndicate Power. The company, in collaboration with Thermax, a Pune-based power equipment maker, is trying to put up the first geothermal plant in the country.

More recently, the state of Gujarat is all set to tap into geothermal energy. The state government is planning to explore the feasibility of geothermal energy
Officials said that there is a potential to generate electricity through geothermal resources, which are available in plenty in the geothermal zone located in Cambay between Narmada and Tapi river. If the pilot project is successful, the state may plan generation of 10,000MW in a decade (Source – H. Basu, TOI, Sep.2012).

Northeast India, comprising the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya have huge potential in tapping this source of energy. I will discuss about this in my next post.


Geothermal Books

Arsenic Pollution – is it a global environmental problem?

Arsenic Pollution: A Global Synthesis (RGS-IBG Book Series)

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, soils, air, plants and animals. At a very high dose, it is a lethal poison. The generally accepted maximum level for arsenic in drinking water is 50 μg/L  As. Chronic low level exposure to arsenic can result in skin cancer, internal cancers, and various non-cancerous skin condition. Arsenic exposure is also linked to diseases of the heart, lungs, and brain.

Arsenic contamination of groundwater  is well documented in the literature. High concentrations detected in groundwater from a number of aquifers across the world, including in South and East Asia, have been found responsible for health problems ranging from skin disorders to cardiovascular disease and cancer.  The problem has increased greatly in recent years with the growing use of tube wells to tap groundwater for water supply and irrigation. The water delivered by these tube wells has been found in many cases to be contaminated with higher than recommended levels of arsenic. In the study region, countries affected include Bangladesh (the worst affected), India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan (South Asia); and Cambodia, China (including Taiwan), Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and Vietnam (East Asia).

Arsenic is also a major contaminant associated with mining activities. Arsenic escaping from various sources like smelters, tailings dams, mullock stockpiles, etc. contaminate groundwater, surface water and soil.

The most common source of elevated As concentrations in the Australian environment are attributable to anthropogenic activities. Mining activities have contributed to the contamination of soil and water primarily in Western Australia and Victoria. However, other anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, forestry and industry have also contaminated soil and water at a localized scale. Currently there are over 1000 As contaminated sites previously used as cattle dips for eradicating cattle ticks. Although As contamination of the environment may be severe enough to limit plant growth there appears to be few other reports identifying the impacts of the contaminants on other organisms, such as fish, mammals and humans. In Australia the impacts of metal/metalloid contamination of the environment are often unnoticed or ignored. However, the impacts of elements such as As may pass unnoticed by the public or regulators due to the perception of the minimal impact a contaminant has on the environment.

Within the groundwater of the fractured Palaeozoic sedimentary sequences of the Eastern Highlands of Australia are zones that are arsenic rich. This groundwater appears to be associated with the gold and arsenopyrite quartz veins and is naturally occurring although there is evidence that the levels of As in the groundwater increase during gold mining operations as the waters become more acidic. The As concentrations in groundwaters discharged from abandoned mine workings in Victoria have been found to range from 0.1 to 300 mg/l. Leach waters from these abandoned mine workings range from 0.06 to 3.4 mg/l.

Apart from these naturally occurring areas of relatively high levels of arsenic there is also groundwater polluted from dairy waste disposal, e.g. the limestone aquifer at Allansford (0.15 to 1.14 mg/l), at an abandoned sugar cane refinery in West Melbourne, and in numerous farms associated with past sheep dip facilities. In addition, surface waters with high As concentrations have been found to be associated with landfills (0.26 mg/l) and industrial wastes (up to 3000 mg/l).

Curiously the streams and the groundwater in the Cainozoic sediment fill, including alluvium, away from the highlands appear to have negligible concentration of As.

Is arsenic pollution a global problem? We do not know fully yet. A 2007 study found that over 137 million people in more than 70 countries are probably affected by arsenic poisoning of drinking water. Arsenic contamination of ground water is found in many countries throughout the world, including the USA. In South America, Argentina and Chile are known to be affected. It is definitely a serious environmental problem in SE and South Asia.



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